Environmental Nano-remediation in Nigeria: A Review of its potentials

  • Chukwuma Chris Okonkwo Department of Agric & Bioresources Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025 Awka, Nigeria
  • Francis Edoziuno Department of Metallurgical & Materials Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025 Awka, Nigeria
  • Louis Chukwuemeka Orakwe Department of Agricultural & Bioresources Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025 Awka, Nigeria
Keywords: Nanoremediation, Environmental Contamination, Nanoparticles, Nanotechnology


Pollution of the environment is one of the most pressing problems confronting developing nations such as Nigeria and the world at large. Due to the unchecked quest for infrastructural and technological development, we have continuously explored and exploited our natural resources, paying little or no attention to the impact of these exploitations on our ecological environment. This negligence has resulted in some severe environmental degradation and the conventional methods previously employed in addressing these issues are no longer efficient, thus there is need for novel, innovative, advanced and efficient environmental remediation alternatives. Nanotechnology offers such alternatives and although most countries are embracing the idea, Nigeria is yet to fully explore this alternative. This paper seeks to throw more light on the application of nanotechnology as viable technique in remediating polluted soil and marine environment in Nigeria.


Cite as:

Okonkwo CC, Edoziuno FO, Orakwe LC. Environmental Nano-remediation in Nigeria: A Review of its Potentials. Alg. J. Eng. Tech. 2020; 3: 043-057.   http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.4403150


  1. Godson-ibeji CC. Chikaire JU. Consequences of Environmental Pollution on Agricultural Productivity in Developing Countries: A Case of Nigeria. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research. 2016, 5;3:1-12
  2. Nwokoro CV. Chima FO. Impact of Environmental Degradation on Agricultural Production and Poverty in Rural Nigeria. American International Journal of Contemporary Research. 2017, 7;2:6-14.
  3. Azuwike OD. Ezedike CE. Beating Air Pollution in Nigeria: The Case for Environmental Management Plan and Best Corporate Governance Practices in the Informal Sector, A Social Dimensions. Journal of the Environment. 2018, 4;3:25-33.
  4. Olatayo TO. Andrew M. Ekperiware MC. Dynamics of economic growth and Environmental Degradation in Nigeria using Vector Auto-regressive model. Asian Journal of Applied Science. 2019,7;2:218-228.
  5. Ewulum BE. Okafor E. Okoli NE-O. An Appraisal of the Impact Of The National Oil Spill Detection And Response Agency On Environmental Pollution In Nigeria. International Journal of Comparative Law and Legal Philosophy.2020, 2;1:58-65.
  6. Olafusi OS. Sadiku ER. Snyman J. Ndambuki JM. Kupolati WK. Application of nanotechnology in concrete and supplementary. SN Applied Sciences, 2019, 1;580.
  7. Arole VM. Munde SV. Fabrication of Nanomaterials by Top-Down And Bottom-Up Approaches – An Overview. Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences and Technology, 2014, 1;2:89-93.
  8. Jeevanandam J. Barhoum A. Chan SY. Dufresne A. Danquah KM. Review on Nanoparticles and Nanostructured Materials: history, sources, toxicity and regulations. Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, 2018, 9:1051.
  9. Maluin FN. Hussein MZ. Idris AS. An Overview of the Oil Palm Industry: Challenges and Some Emerging Opportunities for Nanotechnology Development. Agronomy, 2020, 10;356.
  10. Elegbede JA. Lateef A. Green Nanotechnology in Nigeria: The Research Landscape, Challenges and Prospects. Annals of Science and Technology, 2019, 4;2.
  11. Firozjaee TT. Mehrdadi N. Baghdadi M. Bidhendi GRN. Application of Nanotechnology in Pesticides Removal from Aqueous Solutions. International Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2018, XIV;1:43. 
  12. Mansoori G. Bastami RT. Ahmadpour A. Eshaghi Z. Enviroonmental Application of Nanotechnology. Annual Review of Nano Research , 2008, II;2:1. 
  13. Alagarasi A. Introduction to Nanomaterials. 5th December 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.researchgate.net.
  14. Pokropivny VV. Skorokhod VV. Classification of Nanostructures by Dimensionality and Concept of Surface Forms Engineering in Nanomaterial Science. Material Science and Engineering: C, 2007, 27:990-993.
  15. Ashani HR. Shah JA. Parmar GK. Savaliya C. Markna J. Review on Potential of Nanotechnology and it’s Application Opportunities in Civi lEngineering Domain for Sustainable and Environmental Friendly Infrastructure Development for Economical Growth. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2017, VI;6:11859.
  16. Khan FA. Synthesis of Nanomaterials: Methods & Technology, in Applications of Nanomaterials in Human, Singapore, Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd, 2020; 15-21.
  17. Jamkhande PG. Ghule NW. Bamer AH. Kalaskar MG. Metal nanoparticles synthesis: An overview on methods of preparation, advantages and disadvantages, and applications. Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology, 2019, 53.
  18. Penther D. Ghasemi A. Riedel R. Fleck C. Kamrani S. Effect of SiC nanoparticles on manufacturing process, microstructure and hardness of Mg-SiC nanocomposites produced by mechanical milling and hot extrusion. Materials Science & Engineering A, 2018, 738:264–272.
  19. Zhou H. Hu L. Sun Y. Zhang H. Duan C. Yu H. Synthesis of nanocrystalline AZ31 magnesium alloy with titanium addition by mechanical milling. Materials Characterization, 2016, 113:108–116.
  20. Hai NQ. Kwon SH. Kim H. Kim IT. Lee SG. Hur J. High-performance MoS2-based nanocomposite anode prepared by high-energy mechanical milling: The effect of carbonaceous matrix on MoS2. Electrochimica Acta, 2018, 260:129-138.
  21. Li X. Chen G. Le Z. Li X. Nie P. Liu X. Xu P. Wu HB. Liu Z. Lu Y. Well-dispersed phosphorus nanocrystals within carbon via high-energy mechanical milling for high performance lithium storage. Nano Energy, 2019,59:464–471. 
  22. Azar MH. Sadri B. Nemati A. Angizi S. Shaeri MH. Minárik P. Vesely J. Djavanroodi F. Investigating the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Aluminum-Matrix Reinforced-Graphene Nanosheet Composites Fabricated by Mechanical Milling and Equal-Channel Angular Pressing. Nanomaterials, 2019, 9;1070.
  23. Raghavendra KG. Dasgupta A. Bhaskar P. Jayasankar K. Athreya CN. Panda P. Saroja S. Sarma VS. Ramaseshan R. Synthesis and characterization of Fe-15 wt.% ZrO2 nanocomposite powders by mechanical milling. Powder Technology, 2016, 287:190–200.
  24. Soltani M. Atrian A. High temperature tensile behavior and microstructure of Al-SiC nanocomposite fabricated by mechanical milling and hot extrusion technique. Res. Express, 2018, 5:025026.
  25. Shadangi Y. Shivam V. Singh MK. Chattopadhyay K. Basu J. Mukhopadhyay NK. Synthesis and characterization of Sn reinforced Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystalline matrix nanocomposite by mechanical milling. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2019, 797:1280-1287.
  26. Shadangi Y. Sharma S. Shivam V. Chattopadhyay K. Majumdar B. Basu J. Mukhopadhyay NK. Fabrication of AleCueFe quasicrystal reinforced 6082 aluminium matrix nanocomposites through mechanical milling and spark plasma sintering. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2020, 828:154258.
  27. Sharma N. Dalvi A. Mechanical milling assisted synthesis of novel LiTi2(PO4)3-glass-ceramic nanocomposites. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 2018, 483:126–133.
  28. Krstulovic N. Salamon K. Budimlija O. Kovac J. Dasovic J. Umek P. Capan I. Parameters optimization for synthesis of Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles by laser ablation in water. Applied Surface Science, 2018, 440:916–925.
  29. Mostafa AM. Yousef SA. Eisa WH. Ewaida MA. Al-Ashkar EA. Synthesis of Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation in liquid environment. Optik - International Journal for Light and Electron,
  30. Mwafy EA. Mostafa AM. Multi walled carbon nanotube decorated cadmium oxide nanoparticles via pulsed laser ablation in liquid media. Optics and Laser Technology, 2019, 111:249–254.
  31. Menazea A. Femtosecond laser ablation-assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles in organic and inorganic liquids medium and their antibacterial efficiency. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2019, 168:108616.
  32. Nazarov KS. Irzhak AV. Shayakhmetov RU. Musabirov II. Timirayev RR. Yumaguzin YM. Mulyukov RR. Timirayev RR. Yumaguzin YM. Mulyukov RR. Effect of deformation nanostructuring of nickel and copper on ion sputtering with a focused gallium ion beam with an energy of 30 keV. Letters on Materials, 2019, 9;2:212-217.
  33. Chowdhury D. Ghose D. Fabrication of nanoscale topographies on Ge(100) surface by low energy Ar+ ion sputtering. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B,
  34. Ding JC. Zhang TF. Mane RS. Kim K-H. Kang MC. Zou CW. Wang QM. Low-temperature deposition of nanocrystalline Al2O3 films by ion source-assisted magnetron sputtering. Vacuum, 2018, 149: 284-290.
  35. Hou Q. Cao G. Wang P. Zhao D. Cui X. Li S. Carbon coating nanostructured-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method for high performance lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2018, 747: 796-802.
  36. Suna R. Wang G-G. Peng Z-C. Fabrication and UV photoresponse of GaN nanowire-film hybrid films on sapphire substrates by chemical vapor deposition method. Materials Letters, 2018, 217: 288-291.
  37. Sheikhshoaiea I. Sheikhshoaie M. Ramezanpour S. Synthesis and Characterization of Nano Sized ZnO and CdO by Direct Thermal Decomposition of Their Nano Sized Metal Schiff base Complexes. Chemical Methodologies, 2018, 2: 103-113.
  38. Singh G. Chandra S. Electrochemical performance of MnFe2O4 nanoferrites synthesized using thermal decomposition method. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2018, 43: 4058-4066
  39. Abbasi M. Mirzaei AA. Atashi H. Hydrothermal synthesis of Fe-Ni-Ce nano-structure catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: Characterization and catalytic performance. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2019, 799: 546-555.
  40. Ngidaa RE. Zawraha MF. Khattaba RM. Heikal E. Hydrothermal synthesis, sintering and characterization of nano La-manganite perovskite doped with Ca or Sr. Ceramics International, 2019, 45;4: 4894-4901.
  41. Zhang J. Wang S. Li W. Nano-scale 1TaC-3HfC solid solution powder synthesized using a solvothermal method and its densification. Ceramics International, 2019, 45;1: 1455-1459.
  42. Manimozhi T. Archana J. Navaneethan M. Ramamurthi K. Shape-controlled synthesis of AgBiS2 nano-/microstructures using PEG-assisted facile solvothermal method and their functional properties. Applied Surface Science, 2019, 487:664-673.
  43. Mostafa AM. Menazea AA. Polyvinyl Alcohol/Silver nanoparticles film prepared via pulsed laser ablation: An eco-friendly nano-catalyst for 4-nitrophenol degradation. Journal of Molecular Structure, 2020, 1212: 128125.
  44. Mostafa AM. Mwafy EA. Synthesis of ZnO and Au@ZnO core/shell nano-catalysts by pulsed laser ablation in different liquid media. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 2020, 9;3:3241-3248.
  45. Salari H. Sadeghinia M. MOF-templated synthesis of nano Ag2O/ZnO/CuO heterostructure for photocatalysis. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 2020, 376: 279-287.
  46. Besumbes ES. Fornaguera C. Monge M. García-Celma MJ. Carrióne J. Solans C. Dols-Perez A. PLGA cationic nanoparticles, obtained from nano-emulsion templating, as potential DNA vaccines. European Polymer Journal, 2019, 120: 109229.
  47. Ateia EE. Soliman FS. Multiferroic properties of Gd/Er doped chromium ferrite nano sized particles synthesized by citrate auto combustion method. Materials Science and Engineering: B, 2019, 244: 29-37.
  48. Aravind G. Raghasudha M. Ravinder D. Vijay KR. Magnetic and dielectric properties of Co doped nano crystalline Li ferrites by auto combustion method. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 2016, 406: 110-117.
  49. Su X. Fang Y. Gao P. Liu Y. Hou G. Bai X. Wu W. In-situ microwave synthesis of nano-GaZSM-5 bifunctional catalysts with controllable location of active GaO+ species for olefins aromatization. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 2020, 306: 110388.
  50. Peres EC. Slaviero JC. Cunha AM. Hosseini–Bandegharaei A. Dotto GL. Microwave synthesis of silica nanoparticles and its application for methylene blue adsorption. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2018, 6;1: 649-659.
  51. Grammatikopoulos P. Steinhauer S. Vernieres J. Singh V. Sowwan M. Nanoparticle Design by Gas-phase Method Synthesis. Advances in Physics: X, 2016, 1; 1: 81-100.
  52. Ismail AM. Menazea AA. Kabary HA. El-Sherbiny AE. Samy A. The influence of calcination temperature on structural and antimicrobial characteristics of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by Sol–Gel method. Journal of Molecular Structure, 2019, 1196: 332-337.
  53. Mahmoud AE-r. Issues and hints about UV-optical measurements of (Ba1-xSrx)TiO3 nano-powder synthesized by sol-gel method. Optik, 2018, 158: 870-881.
  54. Zhu F. Ma S. Liu T. Deng X. Green synthesis of nano zero-valent iron/Cu by green tea to remove hexavalent chromium from groundwater. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2018, 174: 184-190.
  55. Rivera-Rangel RD. González-Muñoz MP. Avila-Rodriguez M. Razo-Lazcano TA. Solans C. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in oil-in-water microemulsion and nano-emulsion using geranium leaf aqueous extract as a reducing agent. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2018, 536: 60-67.
  56. Ravikumar KVG. Sudakaran SV. Ravichandran K. Pulimi M. Natarajan C. Mukherjee A. Green synthesis of NiFe nano particles using Punica granatum peel extract for tetracycline removal. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2019, 210: 767-776.
  57. Essawy AA. Alsohaimi IH. Alhumaimess MS. Hassan HMA. Kamel MM. Green synthesis of spongy Nano-ZnO productive of hydroxyl radicals for unconventional solar-driven photocatalytic remediation of antibiotic enriched wastewater. Journal of Environmental Management, 2020, 271: 110961.
  58. Sastry S. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nano Particles. Journal of Water and Environmental Nanotechnology, 2020, 5;1: 81-91.
  59. Zhuang J. Gentry R. Environmental Application and Risks of Nanotechnology: A Balanced View. ACS Symposium Series, 2011, MLXXIX: 41-67.
  60. Hristozov D. Ertel J. Nanotechnology and Sustainability: benefits and risks of nanotechnology for environmental sustainability. Forum Forsch, 2009, 22: 161-168.
  61. Murgueitio E. Cumba L. Abril M. Izquierdo A. Debut A. Tinoco O. Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles: Application on the Removal of Petroleum Oil from Contaminated Water and Soils. Hindawi Journal of Nanotechnology, 2018: 1-8.
  62. Ramamurthy AS. Eglal MM. Degradation of TCE by TEOS Coated nZVI in the Presence of Cu(II) for Groundwater Remediation. Hindawi Journal of Nanomaterials, 2014:1-9.
  63. Ibrahem AK. Moghny TA. Mustafa Y. Maysour NE. El Din El Dars FMS. Hassan RFS. Degradation of Trichloroethylene Contaminated Soil by Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles. ISRN Soil Science, 2012: 1-9. 
  64. Gui M. Smuleac V. Ormsbee LE. Sedlak DL. Bhattacharyya D. Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Synthesis in Aqueous and Membrane Systems for Oxidative Degradation of Trichloroethylene from Water. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2012, XIV; 5: 861
  65. Gomes HI. Ottosen LM. Ribeiro AB. Dias-Ferreira C. Treatment of a suspension of PCB contaminated soil using iron nanoparticles and electric current. Journal of Environmental Management, 2015, CLI: 550-555.
  66. Zhang H. Zhang B. Liu B. Integrated Nanozero Valent Iron and Biosurfactant-Aided Remediation of PCB-Contaminated Soil. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, 2016: 1-11.
  67. Varanasi P. Fullana A. Sidhu S. Remediation of PCB Contaminated Soils using Iron Nanoparticles. Chemosphere, 2007: 1031-1038.
  68. Desalegn B. Megharaj M. Chen Z. Naidu R. Green mango peel-nanozerovalent ironactivated persulfate oxidation of petroleum hydrocarbons in oil sludge contaminated soil. Environmental Technology & Innovation,
  69. Esmaeili A. Saremnia B. Comparison study of adsorption and nanofiltration methods for removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons from oil-field wastewater. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2018, 171: 403–413.
  70. Mirzaee E. Gitipour S. Mousavi M. Amini S. Optimization of total petroleum hydrocarbons removal from Mahshahr contaminated soil using magnetite nanoparticle catalyzed Fenton-like oxidation. Environ Earth Sci, 2017, 76; 165: 1-13.
  71. Esmaeili A. Far FM. Synthesis of granular nanozeolite NaA from Phragmites australis for removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 2016: 307-320.
  72. Apul OG. Delgado AG. Kidd J. Alam F. Dahlen P. Westerhoff P. Carbonaceous nano-additives augment microwave-enabled thermal remediation of soils containing petroleum hydrocarbons. Environmental Science Nano,
  73. Esmaeili A. Saremnia B. Synthesis and characterization of NaA zeolite nanoparticles from Hordeum vulgare L . husk for the separation of total petroleum hydrocarbon by an adsorption process. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2016, 61: 276–286.
  74. Shan A. Farooq U. Lyu S. Zaman WQ. Abbas Z. Ali M. Idrees A. Tang P. Li M. Sun Y. Sui Q. Efficient removal of trichloroethylene in surfactant amended solution by nano FeO-Nickel bimetallic composite activated sodium persulfate process. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2020, 386
  75. Brumovský M. Filip J. Malina O. Oborná J. Sracek O. Reichenauer TG. Andrýsková P. Zbořil R. Core-Shell Fe-FeS Nanoparticles with Controlled Shell Thickness for Enhanced Trichloroethylene Removal. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces,
  76. Losada-Garcia N. Rodriguez-Otero A. Palomo JM. High Degradation of Trichloroethylene in Water by Nanostructured MeNPs@CALB Biohybrid Catalysts. Catalysts, 2020, 10;753.
  77. Tian H. Liang Y. Yang D. Sun Y. Characteristics of PVPestabilised NZVI and application to dechlorination of soil-sorbed TCE with ionic surfactant. Chemosphere, 2020, 239.
  78. Wang B. Dong H. Li L. Wang Y. Ning Q. Tang L. Influence of different co-contaminants on trichloroethylene removal by sulfide-modified nanoscale zero-valent iron. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2020, 381.
  79. Xia Z. Hu L. Kusaba S. Song D. Remediation of TCE Contaminated Site by Ozone Micro-Nano-Bubbles. Proceedings of the 8th International Congress on Environmental Geotechnics, 2019, 1, Singapore, 2019.
  80. Leudjo TA. Fosso-Kankeu E. Pillay K. Yangkou MX. Metal nanoparticles decorated phosphorylated carbon nanotube/cyclodextrin nanosponge for trichloroethylene and Congo red dye adsorption from wastewater," Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering,
  81. Dong H. Zhang C. Deng J. Jiang Z. Zhang L. Cheng Y. Hou K. Tang L. Zeng G. Factors influencing degradation of trichloroethylene by sulfide modified nanoscale zero-valent iron in aqueous solution. Water Research, 2018, 135:1-10.
  82. Sahua RS. Lia D-L. Doong R-A. Unveiling the hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene by reduced graphene oxide supported bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2018, 334: 30–40.
  83. Hu L. Xia X. Application of ozone micro-nano-bubbles to groundwater remediation. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2018, 342, p. 446–453.
  84. Lyu H. Tang J. Shen B. Siddique T. Development of a novel chem-bio hybrid process using biochar supported nanoscale iron sulfide composite and Corynebacterium variabile HRJ4 for enhanced trichloroethylene dechlorination. Water Research, 2018, 147:132-141.
  85. Gu M. Sui Q. Farooq U. Zhang X. Qiu Z. Lyu S. Enhanced degradation of trichloroethylene in oxidative environment by nZVI/PDA functionalized rGO catalyst. Journal of Hazardous Materials,
  86. Li Z. Luo S. Yang Y. Chen J. Highly efficient degradation of trichloroethylene in groundwater based on peroxymonosulfate activation by bentonite supported Fe/Ni bimetallic nanoparticle. Chemosphere,
  87. Liu B. Zhang H. Lu Q. Li G. Zhang F. A Cu\\Ni bimetallic cathode with nanostructured copper array for enhanced hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE). Science of the Total Environment, 2018, 635:1417–1425.
  88. Wang J. Ng CK. Cao B. Qing W. Liu F. Tang CY. Polydopamine enabled palladium loaded nanofibrous membrane and its catalytic. Applied Catalysis A, General,
  89. Tian H. Liang Y. Zhu T. Zeng X. Sun Y. Surfactant-enhanced PEG-4000-NZVI for remediating trichloroethylene-contaminated soil. Chemosphere, 2018, 195:585-593
  90. Sahu RS. Bindumadhavan K. Doong R-A. Boron-doped reduced graphene oxide-based bimetallic Ni/Fe nanohybrids for the rapid dechlorination of trichloroethylene. Environmental Science: Nano,
  91. Zhang Y. Park S-J. Au–Pd bimetallic alloy nanoparticle-decorated BiPO4 nanorods for enhanced photocatalytic oxidation of trichloroethylene. Journal of Catalysis, 2017, 355:1–10.
  92. Kumar MA. Bae S. Han S. Chang Y. Lee W. Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene by polyvinylpyrrolidone stabilized nanoscale zerovalent iron particles with Ni. Journal of Hazardous Materials,
  93. Jang DG. Ahn CH. Choi JS. Kim JH. Kim JK. Joo JC. Enhanced Removal of Trichloroethylene in Water Using Nano-ZnO/Polybutadiene Rubber Composites. Catalysts, 2016, 6;152.
  94. Nikroo R. Alemzadeh I. Vossoughi M. Haddadian K. Evaluation of trichloroethylene degradation by starch supported Fe/Ni nanoparticles via response surface methodology. Water Science & Technology, 2016: 935-946.
  95. Danish M. Gu X. Lu S. Ahmad A. Naqvi M. Farooq U. Zhang X. Fu X. Miao Z. Xue Y. Efficient transformation of trichloroethylene activated throughsodiumpercarbonate using heterogeneous zeolite supported nano zero valent iron-copper bimetallic composite. Chemical Engineering Journal,
  96. Khammar S. Bahramifar N. Younesi H. Preparation and surface engineering of CM-β-CD functionalized Fe3O4 & TiO2 nanoparticles for photocatalytic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from transformer oil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2020, 394.
  97. Horváthová H. Lászlová K. Dercová K. Bioremediation vs. Nanoremediation: Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS) Using Integrated Remediation Approaches. Water Air Soil Pollution, 2019, 230;204:1-11.
  98. Vlotman DE. Ngila JC. Ndlovu T. Doyle B. Carleschi E. Malinga SP. Hyperbranched polymer membrane for catalytic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153) in water. Reactive and Functional Polymers, 2019, 136:44–57.
  99. Lou Y. Cai Y. Tong Y. Hsieh L. Li X. Xu W. Shi K. Shen C. Xu X. Lou L. Interaction between pollutants during the removal of polychlorinated biphenyl-heavy metal combined pollution by modified nanoscale zero-valent iron. Science of the Total Environment, 2019, 673:120–127.
  100. Mikaili MA. Ebadi T. Bahmanib F. Dechlorination Kinetics of PCBs Contaminated Transformer Oils by Stabilized Nanoscale Fe. Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering, 2019, 9;1.
  101. Qin W. Fang G. Wang Y. Zhou D. Mechanistic understanding of polychlorinated biphenyls degradation by peroxymonosulfate activated with CuFe2O4 nanoparticles: Key role of superoxide radicals. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2018, 348:526–534.
  102. Shaban YA. Sayed MAE. Maradny AAE. Farawati RKA. Zobidi MIA. Khan SUM. Photocatalytic Removal of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) using Carbon-Modified Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles. Applied Surface Science,
  103. Liu Z. Zhang F. Hoekman SK. Liu T. Gai C. Peng N. Homogeneously dispersed zerovalent iron nanoparticles supported on hydrochar-derived porous carbon. Simple, in situ synthesis and use for de-chlorination of PCBs. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 2016:1-33.
  104. Shaban YA. El Sayed MA. ElMaradny AA. Al Farawati RK. Al Zobidi MI. Khan SU. Laboratory and Pilot-Plant Scale Photocatalytic Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Seawater Using CM-n-TiO2 International Journal of Photoenergy, 2016.
  105. Nnaji JC. Nanomaterials for Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soil. Umudike Journal of Engineering And Technology, 2017, III;2:23-29.
  106. Rizwan M. Singh M. Mitra CK. Morve RK. Ecofriendly Application of Nanomaterials: Nanobioremediation. Journal of Nanoparticles, 2014:1-7.
  107. Pandey B. Fulekar M. Nanotechnology: Remediation Technologies to clean up the Environment. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 2012, II;2:90-96. 
  108. Yuan J. Liu X. Akbulut O. Hu J. Suib SL. Kong J. Stellacci F. Superwetting Nanowire Membranes for Selective Absorb. Nature Nanotechnolog , 2008:332.
  109. Amin MT. Alazba AA. Manzoor U. A Review of Removal of Pollutants from Water/Wastewater Using Different Types of Nanomaterials. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering,
  110. Seymour M. Transport of Engineered Nanomaterials in Porous Media: Groundwater Remediation Application and Effects of Particle Shape. Environmental Engineering Theses and Graduate Student Research,
  111. National Nanotechnology Initiative. The Initiative and Its Implementation Plan. Available: http://www.nano.gov/html/facts/whatIsNano.html. (13th July, 2020).
  112. Rabbani MM. Ahmed I. Park S-J. Application of Nanotechnology to Remediate Contaminated Soils. Springer, 2016:219-229.
  113. Almaroai YA. Vithanage M. Rajapaksha AU. Lee SS. Dou Z. Lee YH. Sung JK. Ok YK. Natural and Synthesized Iron-rich Amendments for As and Pb Immobilization in Agricultural Soils. Chemical Ecology, 2014, XXX:267–279.
  114. Henderson AD. Demond AH. Long-term Performance of Zero-valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barriers: A Critical Review. Environmental Engineering Science, 2007, XXIV:401-423.
  115. Zhang W. Nanoscale Iron Particles for Environmental Remediation: An Overview. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2003, V:323–332
  116. European Union Paper. Nanotechnology –concerns and safe practices. Available: www.observatorynano.eu/project/document. (13th July, 2020).
  117. Tratnyek PG. Sarathy V. Fate and Remediation of 1,2,3- Trichloropropane, in Sixth International Conference on Remediation of Chlorinated and Recalcitrant Compounds, Monterey, 2008.
  118. Khin MM. Nair AS. Babu VJ. Murugan R. Ramakrishna S. A Review on Nanomaterials for Environmental Remediation. Energy Environmental Science, 2012, V:8075–8109.
  119. Wang X. Chen C. Chang Y. Liu H. Dechlorination of Chlorinated Methanes by Pd/Fe Bimetallic Nanoparticles. Journal of Hazard Materials, 2009: 815–823.
  120. Patil SS. Shedbalkar UU. Truskewycz A. Chopade BA. Ball AS. Nanoparticles for Environmental Clean-up: A review of potential risks and emerging solutions. Environmental Technology and Innovation, 2016, V:10–21.
  121. Bankole MT. Tijani JO. Mohammed IA. Abdulkareem AA. A review on nanotechnology as a tool of change in Nigeria. Scientific Research and Essays, 2014, IX: 213-223.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...
How to Cite
Okonkwo CC, Edoziuno F, Orakwe LC. Environmental Nano-remediation in Nigeria: A Review of its potentials . Alger. J. Eng. Technol. [Internet]. 2020Dec.28 [cited 2022Jan.27];30:043-57. Available from: https://www.jetjournal.org/index.php/ajet/article/view/57